Do You Know India ? Important Details for SSC, NDA, CDS, Railway, DSSSB, Civil Services, General Competitions about India. सभी प्रतियोगी और सभी परीक्षाओं के लिए बहुत जरूरी। जरूर पढ़ें और सफल हों। Must for all students . GK for All .

India Our Motherland

India lies in Northern and Eastern Hemisphere in continent of Asia. India lies in South Asia.India is 5 th great economy but still a developing economy . India is a mixed economy where there is coexistence of Public and Private Sector. 

India is a country with unity in diversity. There are nearly all religions in India. Hinduism,Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism ,Buddhism and many tribal religions are found in India. Hundreds of languages are spoken throughout India. Our Indian Constitution has recognised 22 major languages which are in 8th Schedule of Constitution. There are many cultures in India.

Geographically India can be divided in 1. Northern Mountains (Karakoram, Laddakh ,Zaskar , The Himalayan ranges ) 2. North Indian Plains 3.  Deserts (Hot Desert of Thar in Rajasthan and Cold desert of Laddakh )4. The Peninsular Plateau of South India  5. Coastal Plains (Eastern coastal Plains & Western coastal Plains ) 6. Islands ( Andaman and Nicobar Islands & Lakshadweep Islands )

The extent of India in East ,West, North and South are as follows :

1. Eastern most point - Kibithu ,Anjaw district,Walong,(Arunachal Pradesh)
2. Western most point -Guhar Moti (Gujarat) Some regard Sir Creek (Gujarat)
3.Northern most point -Indira col (Jammu & Kashmir), Karakoram Range ,Trijunction of India , Pakistan and China.
4. Southernmost Point - Indira Point , Great Nicobar (Andaman and Nicobar islands)
5. Southern most point of Mainland India -
  Kanyakumari or Capecomorin (Tamil nadu)
6.Area of India - 32 lakhs 87 thousand 263 sq. km.(Seventh largest country in the world, 2.4 % of the area of the world.)
7.North to South Distance - 3214 km.
8. East to West distance - 2933 km.
9. Land Frontier - 15200 km.
10. Sea coast line - 7516 km.
11.Population - 1.21 billion (2011 census), second rank in the world in population.Nearly 17 % of the population of the World.Every 6th person of the world is an Indian.Every year we add population equivalent to Australia.
12. Location between 8 degree 4 minutes N to 37 degree 6 minutes N Latitude & from 68 degree 7 minutes E to 97 degree 25 minutes E Longitude.The Tropic of Cancer ( 23 and half N latitude) almost divides the country in two equal parts . Udaipur city of Tripura is closest to Tropic of Cancer.
13. Tropic of Cancer crosses through 8 Indian States namely Gujarat , Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand,West Bengal, Tripura & Mizoram.
14. Indian Standard Time is measured through 82 and half longitude .It passes through middle of India. It crosses through 5 Indian States namely Uttar Pradesh,Madhya pradesh, Chattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.This line crosses from Allahabad, Mirzapur,Naini (Uttar Pradesh). Indian Standard Time is 5 and half hours ahead of International Standard Time (0 degree longitude, Greenwich Mean Time, London, United Kingdom).
15. India is surrounded by Pakistan , Afghanistan, Arabian sea in the West; Bangladesh, Myanmar,Bay of Bengal in the East;The Himalayan range,Tibet (China),Nepal and Bhutan in the North; Sri Lanka and Indian Ocean in the South.

16. India has 28 states and 8 union territories.

17. The largest state in area is Rajasthan and in population is Uttarpradesh.

18. The smallest state in area is Goa and in population is Sikkim.

19. Large cities of India are Mumbai, Delhi,Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru , Hyderabad, Ahmedabad etc. The capital of India is New Delhi.

20. Hindi is official language of India.

21. India is a parliamentary democracy . Indian constitution is largest written constitution of the world.

22. Our National anthem is Jan Gan Man which was composed by Rabindranath Tagore. Our National Song is Bande Matram composed by Bankim chandra Chaterjee in his book Annand Math. Our National anthem and National song was accepted by our constituent assembly on 24 January 1950. Our National anthem was sung for the first time in 1911 annual session of Indian National Congress in Kolkata. Our National Song was first time sung in 1896 annual session of Indian National Congress held in Kolkata.

23. Our Flag is Tri Coloured which was approved by our constituent assembly on 22 July 1947.

24. India became independent on 15th August 1947 . Indian constitution was completed on 26 November 1949. India became a republic on 26 January 1950 when Indian constitution was implemented. 

25. Satyamev Jayate has been borrowed from Mundaka Upanishad.

26. Our National Emblem has been borrowed from Sarnath Lion pillor of Ashoka , the great Mauryan Emperor.

27. National Bird - Peacock

28. National Animal - Tiger

29. National Flower - Lotus

30. National tree - Banyan 

31. National Game - Hockey 

32. Our National calendar is based on Saka Era established by Kanishka, a famous Kushan ruler in 78 AD. His capital was purushpur that is modern peshawar in Pakistan. Kushan has same importance in spreading Mahayan Buddhism in Central Asia as Ashoka , great Mauryan ruler had a role in spreading Hinyan Buddhism throughout the world.

33. India is birthplace of many religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Hinduism has come out from Sanatan Dharma .Many sects ,Vaishnavism,Shaivism,Lingayat, Shaktism , Ajiwakism etc. amalgamated and standard Hinduism emerged in Gupta period. There are 4 Vedas that is Rigveda, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda and Samveda. Rigveda is the oldest Veda and also oldest book of the world. It was composed in 1500 BC . Rigveda consists of 1028 religious hymns and 10 Mandals. It basically deals with prayers and personification of natural powers as Gods . Rigveda believes in Monotheism. The chief Rigvedic Gods are Indra (No. 1 Rigvedic God , War God , Nearly 250 hymns dedicated to him in Rigveda), Agni (Kitchen God and intermediary between Human beings and Gods), Varun ( Controller of natural forces , Water God, Most fearful God ),Som (God of plants ).  Yajurveda deals in Sacrificial Rituals. Atharvaveda deals with charms,spells, medicine. Samveda deals with music. There are 108 Upanishads (They deal in Brahminical Philosophy), 18 purans (They deal in historical chronicles), 2 great Mahakavyas that is Mahabharat (Compiled by Lord Vyasa , Also called Jay Samhita , nearly 1 lakh shlokas , divided into 18 parva  ), and Ramayan (Written by Valmiki ). Gita deals with core philosophy of Hinduism , part of Mahabharat , sermon of Lord Krishna to Arjuna , deals with importance of Karma , gives message of Monotheism. Gita was also compiled by Lord Vyasa . Ramcharit Manas was written by Tulsidas during the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar in 16th century. There are  7 kands in Ramcharit Manas . It is most popular epic of Hinduism .

Buddhism was founded by Lord Buddha ( Childhood name Siddarth , Son of Lord Suddodhana who was ruler of Kapilvastu and Mahamaya . He was brought up by his foster mother Mahaprajapati Goutami ). Lord Buddha was born in Lumbini (Nepal), got enlightenment in Bodhgaya, Bihar  under a peepal tree on the bank of Niranjana river. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath (UP , India). Lord Buddha died in Kushinagar (UP, India).The religious book of Buddhism is Tripitaka.

Jainism was founded by Rishavdeva also called Adinath and regarded as First Tirthankar of Jainism.Although real founder of Jainism was 23rd Tirthankar , Parsvanath . Lord Mahavira was 24th and last Tirthankar of Jainism. The religious book of Jainism is poorvas & Agams. Lord Mahavira was son of Siddarth and Trishla. He was born in kundagram, Vaishali, Bihar. He got enlightenment in Jrimbhik village , Vaishali, under a shal tree on the bank of Rijupalika river.

Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak born in Talwandi , Pakistan. Guru Nanak was first Guru of Sikhs and his teachings was compiled as Guru Granth Sahib by fifth Sikh Guru Arjundeva. The last and 10th Guru was Guru Govind Singh who was born in Patna , Bihar. He created Khalsa (Military brotherhood of Sikhs ). He gave the Sikhs 5 K that is Kesh, Kripan, Kaccha, kangha and kara . 

Dear students next part I will produce later on.Hope this helps you.


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